Iran History Grid


Tehran is Iran’s largest city and its capital and the center of Tehran province. Tehran city is located in north of Iran and south of Alborz mountains. Tehran is considered to be the 25th most populous city in the world. This city is one of the biggest cities of west Asia and 27th largest city in the world. The administrative structure of Iran is concentrated at Tehran. Azadi tower is the symbol of Tehran city. Also, Milad Tower is considered to be its, other, symbol. Tehran is sister with some of the other cities in the world such as Seoul, Los Angeles, Istanbul and etc

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Kashan is one of the most important cities of Isfahan city. With a 7000-year history, this city is considered as one of the most important archeological centers. Most of the historians and travelers that have visited this city have named it the gateway of global civilization.

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Kashan has 1700 identified historical monuments and 313 nationally registered ones. Tourist attractions of the Isfahan province have caused many tourists to visit the historical monuments, sights and handicrafts of Kashan. Kashan is sister with the cities of Umea in Sweden, Kazanlak in Bulgaria and Sabzevar in Iran.



Isfahan is an ancient city at the center of Iran and the center of Isfahan province. Isfahan is the third largest city and the most populous one in Iran after Tehran and Mashhad. The city achieved great prosperity during the years 1050-1722, and especially in the sixteenth century when it became the capital of Iran during the Safavid era for the second time (the first time was during the Seljuk dynasty).

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There are many historical buildings in the city, some of which have been registered at UNESCO as historical heritage. Isfahan was chosen as the cultural capital of Islamic world in 2006 and the cultural capital of Iranian and Islamic civilization in 2009 and also as the industrial capital of Iran after Tehran. Also this city, alongside Rasht, joined the UNESCO creative cities of the world network on December 2015. Naqshe Jahan Square is one of the largest squares in the world and an outstanding example of Islamic architecture, which has been registered by UNESCO as world heritage.



Meybod is a city in Yazd province. This city has a thousand years of history. This city is considered to be the second urban and commercial center of Yazd province and due to its valuable historical structure, most of the city has been registered on the list of Iran’s historical monuments. It’s also worth mentioning that Jahanabad town is also one of the major industrial centers of this city, and by producing half of the tiles and ceramics of the province, this province, is also considered as the production center of these products.

Considering the coined coins of Meybod in Sassanid period, it becomes clear that Meybod was a great and important city in late Sassanid era; and more than a hundred and eleven pre-Islamic cities identified in Iran only a few number of them had coinage conditions or its permission. The remaining coins from the time of the Sassanid Boran, which were coined in this county, are of the historical proofs that show the political and civilizational importance of Meybod County during Sassanid era.

 According to the available evidence and findings of investigations, the first foundation of Meybod city belongs to ancient periods of Iran’s history. Because of this, International UNESCO Organization, has placed the old city of Meybod among the experimental historical-cultural monuments of Iran. The oldest evidence of the city’s historical identity and the start of urbanization in Yazd, is Narin Qaleh of Meybod; the construction of which is attributed to Prophet Solomon.

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Yazd city is the center of Yazd province, Yazd is considered to be one of the old cities of Iran and one of the best desert cities. It’s the first raw adobe city and the second historical city in the world after Venice in Italy. This region has been considered as one of the main and historical path and passageways of Iran and has always been noted by governments. Yazd is known as the “City of Wind Towers”. Also, “Bride of the Desert”, “Dar al Elm”, “City of Bicycles” and “the City of Sweets” are considered to be its other titles. Yazd is the city of different cultures and religions and its cultural inhabitants live peacefully together. This city is sister to the cities of Homs in Syria, Jaszbereny in Hungary, Nizwa in Oman, Jakarta the capital of Indonesia, Holguin in Cuba and Yeosu in South Korea.

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Kerman city is the center of Kerman province, the largest province of Iran, in southeast of the province. Kerman is one of the five historical cities of Iran and the biggest city in southeast of Iran and also the most important city in industrial, political, cultural and scientific terms in Iran’s southeast. This city has passed so many ups and downs through history and so many important events have taken place here from pre-Islamic times until contemporary times. Socially, these events were unbearable for the people, but in a cultural sense, they’ve enriched this region, giving it a culture most pleasant and tolerant of the other thoughts and beliefs. All the minorities can easily live in Kerman among other people while still practicing their own rites and customs.


Bam is one of the cities of Kerman and of course its center. This county is bounded by Kerman province from north and west, Jiroft County from southwest, Anbarabad County from south and from east, by the counties of Narmashir and Mohammadabad.

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Shiraz is one of the largest cities of Iran and it is the center of Fars province. After Tabriz and Tehran, Shiraz is the third city to adopt the municipality institution. Since the ancient Iran until now, this city has had a history filled with stories.  Shiraz has always been considered as one of the major centers of tourism in Iran and it is quite well known by its many tourist attractions to both the foreign and domestic tourists. By the decision of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, the middle day of spring which is 15th of Ordibehesht (5th of May) has been named the day of Shiraz. It’s also worth mentioning that Shiraz is sister cities with seven other cities in the world.


Marvdasht is one of the towns of Fars province in Iran. The center of this county is Marvdasht city. The existence of several buildings and historical monuments of Iran in Marvdasht have transformed this region into the Iran’s cradle of culture and civilization, the treasure trove of historical secrets, the scout of one of the ancient world’s largest empires and the guardian of the immense heritage of the ancients. The existence of world renowned historical constructs such as Persepolis and Naqsh-e Rustam have given this town a special importance.

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Ahvaz city is located at the central part of Ahvaz city and it’s also known as the center of Khuzestan province. This multinational and multiethnic city is considered to be one of the rich cities of Iran in terms of culture and customs. Karun River, known as the most watery river of Iran, has divided Ahvaz city into two parts and its beautiful bridges have added another luster to this city.  National Iranian South Oil Company, which is the largest oil production company in Iran, is stationed in Ahvaz, and also, the National Iranian Drilling Company, which is considered to be the largest drilling company in the country is also stationed in Ahvaz. Some of the largest mother factories of the province are located in this city. Unfortunately, Ahvaz is considered among the most polluted cities in the world. Like most of cities and provinces, especially those in the south of Iran, Ahvaz, has lost much during the imposed war between Iran and Iraq. It’s also worth reminding that Ahvaz has achieved the honor tablet of the interior ministers and the ministry of culture and Islamic guidance and also the appreciation tablet of the UNESCO National Committee and has been presented as the first capital in book of Iran on 2015.

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Shushtar is located in Khuzestan province. This region is situated on the slope of Zagros Mountains and has unparalleled historical and tourist attractions. This region is known as one of the most important tourist areas of Iran and its mills and hydraulic systems, which have been registered in World Heritage, attract many Iranian and foreign tourists.


Susa is of the northern towns of Khuzestan province and its center is the city of Susa. The ancient Susa city has been of the centers of old civilization, of the most famous cities in the world, several thousand year old capital of Elam civilization and also the winter capital of the Achaemenian Empire. Of its valuable historical monuments Chogha Zanbil ziggurat and the historical site of Susa can be mentioned; which are all registered as world heritage. Susa, due to its special geographical location and valuable and unique historical and religious monuments, has a special place in the area of tourism.


The ancient Hamadan city is the center of Hamadan province. Genesis of this city has been attributed to Deioces, the Median king and it is the first imperial capital of Iran (of the Median Empire). Hamadan is considered to be the oldest city of Iran and one of the oldest cities in the world. This city has ancient history and culture and has been the home of many famous scientists, scholars and mystics. Hamadan city has been of immense importance during different periods of Iran’s ancient history as the capital of many of its ruling governments. This city has become sister city with some other cities in the world, among which Kulob in Tajikistan, Sparta in Turkey, Bukhara in Uzbekistan and Yekaterinburg in Russia can be named. The reason why Hamadan and Kulob cities have become sisters is because of the tomb of the mystic and sufi, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, who was born in Hamadan and buried in Kulob. Also, since Avicenna was born and raised in Bukhara, the sisterhood of these two cities has special significance.

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Qazvin is one of the largest cities of Iran in the west and the center of Qazvin province. Qazvin was the capital of Iran for 57 years during the Safavid dynasty and, as a result of that, it has many historical locations and museums. Qazvin, Iran’s capital of calligraphy, aside from historical and agricultural backgrounds, is also considered as one of the biggest industrial centers of Iran. Qazvin has become a sister city of Perugia in Italy and is also the sister of some other cities in the world.

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Kermanshah city is the center of Kermanshah province in west of Iran. This city is considered to be the largest and most important city in western region of Iran. Kermanshah has been of the historical and cultural cities of Iran and one of the highways connecting east and west and the oldest passageway from Iran to Mesopotamia. Even in ancient times, the people of Kermanshah were always claiming many firsts of the history for their own name. In terms of the survived prehistoric habitations, this region, is one of the richest and most important in Iran and west Asia. Kermanshah is also one of the important cities of the Sassanid period and most of its historical monuments belong to this period of Iran’s history.

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Tabriz, resting on the lap of Sahand, a dormant volcano, but Tabriz itself is a volcano erupting every now and then with a mighty roar, changing the countenance of history. Tabriz is one of the oldest cities of Iran. The collection of historical relics and archeological signs uncovered from several of its places as a result of many excavations are proofs of its ancient history. The oldest record found about the Tabriz city is from the inscription of Sargon II the Assyrian king (750-722 BC), in which it is described as a large and prosperous city with a labyrinthine fortification.

Tabriz is the cradle of science and civilization, pioneering scout of the firsts in Iran, out of which the establishment of the first state association on 1906, developing the city managing systems such as the municipality by Ghasem Khan Vali, founding the first literary society on 1900 and establishment of the first modern school by Haji Mirza Hassan Roshdieh in year 1889 can be named.

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Rasht is the center of the evergreen Gilan province in north of Iran. This city has a rainy but heartwarming and pleasant climate, which attracts every tourist towards itself. The cultural people of this city have always been the first as academic and modernist people. Rasht is the city of rice and rain. Rasht has many impressive and famous historical and natural attractions. The local cuisine of this city is beloved by most of the Iranians and even the foreign tourists. Lately, with the purpose of creating an international brand for Rasht city, it has been proposed as “the city most creative with its cuisine” in UNESCO.  The sister cities of Rasht are as follows: Moscow Kazan, and Astrakhan in Russia, Trabzon in Turkey, Kutaisi in Georgia, Rasht District in Tajikistan , Multan in Pakistan and Schwabisch Hall in Germany.

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Mashhad is a metropolis in northeast of Iran and the center of Razavi Khorasan. This city was the capital of Iran during the Afsharid dynasty. Mashhad is the second largest city in Iran after Tehran. Mashhad owes its significance and current situation to the holy shrine of Imam Reza which attracts more than 20 million tourists per year from all parts of Iran and other countries. Best and most glorious of Islamic arts can be observed in this religious complex. Mashhad also has many cultural, historical and natural attractions, among which the tomb of Ferdowsi, the tomb and museum of Afshar Shah’s mother can be named. Also, Mashhad Expo is currently the largest and most active international expo in the country after Tehran Expo. Mashhad was officially chosen as the “Spiritual Capital of Iran” in 2009 and “Capital of Islamic Culture” in 2017.

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 Sistan and Baluchestan:

Sistan and Baluchestan province is located at the east and southeast of Iran. It is Iran’s vastest province with area approximately equal to that of Syria but is less populous. Sistan includes Zabol and the cities around it and Baluchestan encompasses the rest of the cities from Zahedan to Chabahar. This province has special significance in the region because of being located at a strategic and transit location; especially Chabahar which is the only city connected to the ocean in Iran and the  best and easiest access route of the middle Asian countries to free waters. Zahedan is the center of this province, which is also connected to Mirjaveh of Pakistan through rail road. Sistan and Baluchestan province is considered to be the rainbow of the country’s mines. This province has unparalleled natural and historical attractions and Chabahar port has also added to its beauty. Shahre Sukhteh, listed at UNESCO World Heritage is world renowned.

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Qeshm Island is the largest island of Iran and the largest dependent island in the world (larger than 22 countries in the world). This island is in close vicinity of Hormuz strait and is the most populous island of Persian Gulf. Qeshm Island is Iran’s second free trade seaport which has fifteen fishing and trading ports. This island is noted for its large shopping malls which usually have inexpensive goods. The only Geo Park of the country is located in Qeshm Island.

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Kish Island is one the islands of the Persian gulf, in Bandar Lengeh County at Hormozgan province. Kish is the most important and most spectacular island of Hormozgan province in south of Iran. This island attracts one million tourists per year. Kish Island, due to many beautiful spaces and vistas of Hormuz Sea, has been chosen as the fourth tourism destination in southwestern Asia by World Tourism Organization. One of the reasons why it is a perfect destination for tourists is that there is no need for foreigners to obtain a visa in order to visit the island. The free trade zone position of Kish has caused its shopping centers to become one of the tourist attractions of this island. Kish is sister with two cities of Dubai in United Arab Emirates and Langkawi in Malaysia.

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